Title The Composite Space in Fiction Author Fan, Ming-Ju Distinguished Professor, Graduate Institute of Taiwanese Literature, National Chengchi University Abstract There are visible and invisible codes embedded in the definition and function of space, embodying the order and value of social relations in human society. Small like the interior settlement or large as community scheme, it can be a personal foothold and evaluations of personal status even the norm of modernized countries. To correspond with the logic of social space, the setting and description in literature represent its imagination normally. It is said that everything has its own place, but spatial types and functions are often intermingled and compounded in realistic and fictional world. How do these composite, mixed, and fluid spaces form? What do they mean in narrative literature? What I called composite space in this essay is, a space with different uses, alters its function due to time, human factors or law. Generally speaking, the spots in fiction such as the family and company usually are private and public images or functions separately. The line in fictions, like the road, represents temporarily open space, a transitional public path or intermediary. However, there are lots of exceptions. Sometimes the uses of spots and lines are interchangeable, sometimes the definitions are mingled. The causes are complicated; some are personal factors, some are particular economic development or population distribution in history, some are acquiesced or encouraged by the government, and some are geographical conditions and regional geopolitical changes. The composite space is an outcome combined with geography, history and aesthetics. Hence, it serves as a window to view the development of Taiwanese society. This article will explore composite space from three aspects. The first section discusses multiple usages in the family space. The second section extends to analysis the hybrid of private and public space. The final section examines the functions of public space adjusted and changed with the times. The spatial practice formed in special cultural context shapes different spatial cognition, and contains aesthetic characters reconstructed specific time and space of Taiwan.
Title The Carnivalesque, the Playful and the Comical: Guan Guan’s Urchin Poetics Author Yang, Xiao-Bin Research Fellow, Institute of Chinese Literature and Philosophy, Academia Sinica Abstract This essay observes the rhetorical characteristics and the cultural spirits in Guan Guan’s poetry from Lacanian psychoanalytic semiotics and other contemporary theoretical perspectives. Guan Guan’s surrealistic aesthetics is usually blended with his carnivalesque style, challenging the originally majestic signs in base and grotesque ways. In many of his poems, Guan Guan practices an incessantly sliding or leaping strategy of speech, displaying the perpetual shifts with diachronic surreal displacements. In any case, the subjective destitution in Guan Guan’s poetry can be seen as a reactivation of the unrestrained and self-mocking mindset of traditional Chinese literati. The childish taste and playful spirit in his poetry must be understood as the ceaseless dialectical movements between trauma and the effort to symbolize it.
Title The Dilemma of Speaking and the Redundant of Home/State: Hu Shu-wen’s White-Terror Writing and Political Criticism Author Li, Shu-Chun Assistant Professor, Graduate Institute of Gender Studies, Kaohsiung Medical University Abstract This article discusses Hu Shu-wen’s White-Terror writing. The discussion is divided into three parts: Firsts, Hu Shu-wen’s White-Terror writing criticizes the system of authoritarian. Secondly, she points out the speaking dilemma of the survivors. Thirdly, the survivors become the redundant of home/country. In the first section, I analyze the state system and its cooperators. In the second section, I discuss the dilemma of speaking because of the trauma. In the third part, I discuss political mental patients; political nomads and political orphans become “the redundant” of families/countries, excluded by politics, society and family. In conclusion, political prisoners become “surplus” because they do not conform to the sovereign order and borders on the country. Some survivors with mental illness were wandering away from home, some dying on the streets outside the “home”. Political orphans were abandoned by society and become “redundant” because of political disasters.
Title The Establishment of Free Verse in Japanese in 1920s Taiwan: Mainly about Goto Daiji Author Chang, Shih-Chin Ph.D. Candidate, Graduate Institute of Taiwanese Literature, National Chengchi University Abstract This paper explores how Gotô Daji (後藤大治), a Japanese poet who lived in Taiwan, played a critical role in the establishment of free verse in Japanese in 1920s Taiwan. In the 1920s, numerous free verse poems in Japanese appeared in Taiwan, and poetry journals, poetry clubs, and poetry collections followed. However, previous research about those texts and poets of this period has been limited. This paper examines the background of the establishment of free verse in Japanese in Taiwan during this period through a literature survey across Japan and Taiwan. First of all, this paper explains why Taiwan entered into the field of Japanese poetry through the concern for local poetry by a Japanese poetry organization, Siwakai (詩話会), and its magazine Japanese Poet (日本詩人). Secondly, this paper examines the process by how Gotô Daiji joined in Japanese Poet through his literary trajectory in Taiwan and Japan, and probes how he inherited the idea of Japanese Poet that poetry would carry forward local poetry, and let the free verse spread in Taiwan. Finally, through actual poems, this paper discusses how Gotô Daiji used unique Taiwanese subjects and language to complete the free verse poems with Taiwanese local colors.
Title Cold War, Two Chinas, and acceptance of China and Chinese literature in 1950s and 60s Korea Author Lee, Bong-Beom Translator: Lin, Xiao-Ci Visiting Professor, Academy of East Asian Studies, Sungkyunkwan University Translator: Ph.D Student, Graduate School of East Asian Studies, Sungkyunkwan University Abstract After the end of the Cold War, Korean government broke diplomatic relations with Taiwan and established diplomatic relations with Communist China. These actions transformed Koreans’ attitude toward China fundamentally. Behind these turn, there is a difficult history of acceptance of Chinese literature in Cold War Korea. It is a good example that the acceptance of Cao Yu’s “Thunderstorm” in Cold War Korea. Korean approaches to china and acceptance of Chinese literature in Cold War period can’t be just characterized by a binary structure: selecting Taiwan and excluding Communist China. As Korean intellectuals’ continued interest in Mao Zedong shows, what is officially considered excluded had promoted another way to understand China. In 1950s and 60s Korea, relationship with two Chinas was promoted or, conversely, limited by Korean governments’ Cold War controls and diplomatic policies. It was foundations of Asian People’s Anti-Communist League (APACL) in 1954 and Asian and Pacific Council (ASPAC) in 1966 that materialized Korean governments’ Korean-led Asian regional initiative. Though these organizations couldn’t be military alliance such as NATO because it would conflict American East Asian policies, it promoted paradoxically Korean cultural exchanges and cooperations with other Asian countries. In 1950s, Cultural exchanges between Korea and Taiwan were mostly taken in form of goodwill missions’ Southeast Asia tour held by APACL, these tours are nothing but a ideological solidarity based on Anti-communism and dictatorship. Korean journalism’s discussions on Communist China also followed Cold War antagonism because their sources was very limited and depended on American materials. However, It began a new phase of Korean approach to China in the 1960s. As détente mood has arrived and Park’s Administration began to implement a more Asia-conscious foreign policies, it improved that studies of Communism and Modernization in Asia, especially Communist China. While American private foundations including Ford and Asia Foundations assist the development of international cold war networks, it became to broaden transnationally that area of study on Communist China. Koreans’ main interest about Taiwan was shifted from cultural issues to economic issues, focusing issues of Modernization in Taiwan. These changes on way to understand Two Chinas also work translating and accepting of Chinese literature. There are very little Chinese works in world literature anthologies in the late 1950s, and it were just traditional Chinese literature or Taiwanese writers’ works in them. Koreans didn’t think that Chinese literature have significant for world literature a whole. However, Chinese literature is second only to Anglo-American works in the number of translations, most of them included traditional Chinese literature, Taiwanese wuxia fictions, and some of Taiwanese post-war literature. Many of those translations are the excluded works in both Communist China and Taiwan. In 1950s and 60s, Korean translations and acceptance of foreign literature were generally controlled by Cold War censorship, as well as its lack of academical and journalistic infrastructures: related department in high education system, scholarly societies, and academic journals. In 1960s, Lin Yutang’s and Lu Xun’s works were accepted as ideological and cultural materials which support Cold War Anti-communism. Besides Chinese literature were inevitably translated and got acceptation in Cold War context, a series of histories of Chinese literature were steadily published. These works have merits as systemic approach, but generally give Taiwanese literature legitimacy as a successor to Chinese modern literature. It also shows that the boundaries of Korean understanding Two Chinas was limited by Cold War.