Title Cultural China, geographic Taiwan──“Folk context” of Hsiao Li-Hung's works in the 1970s Author Yang, Tsui Associate Professor, Department of Taiwanese Literature, Providence University Abstract From the 1970s, at first the cultural discusser of “Native Taiwan” is a substitute for “Cultural China”, the two codes of “Native Taiwan” and “Cultural China” have multi-layeredness in literature. We can take the background as a basic to study the “Native locality” of Hsiao Li-Hung's works in the 1970s, from the work of “Leng chin chien” the codes of geographic Taiwan coexist with the Cultural China, and turn into a kind of fundamental key in her creation. Hsiao Li-Hung said that the reason to create “Kuei hua hsiang” and “A Thousand Moons on A Thousand Rivers” is to sigh the transiyion of times, and the lost of cultural spirit. “Native Writing” is her self-examination of modernity, her works are not only presented the ambiguous dispute between Cultural China（Fatherland）and geographic Taiwan（Motherland）, but also characterized the context of age. The space images such as the sea, harbor, pa-chang river, fish farm, salt pan, and an embankment were composed a special folk context in the Hsiao Li-Hung's works. The description about “Cultural China” in “Leng chin chien” were traditional drama, tonality, feminine education and the female beauty; in “Kuei hua hsiang” were about a set of Chinese feminine body discusser, such as bound feet, tuan-chang and chastity. There is a very strong criticism to the constraint of Cultural China's manner and education in “Kuei hua hsiang”. On the one side, there have more concrete views of geographic Taiwan and full of deep feeling in folk, the concept of “motherland” is getting full and rich by combining motherland and clannish relationship in “A Thousand Moons on A Thousand Rivers”. On the other side, there also has a vivid prospect of Cultural China, and the basic feminine image in this novel is “good woman has good virtue” by describing the customers, manners and the classics of feminine education. Cultural China is distinguished from others as patriarchal culture, and the image of “fatherland” is bright. “Cultural China” and “geographic Taiwan” interweave a multi-layered image to be a folk context fundamental key in the 1970s novels of Hsiao Li-Hung.
Title The ideal distance between poems and reality: Review a controversy about Taiwan modern poetry in 1972-1973 Author Lee, Kuei-Yun Assistant Professor, Department of Chinese Literature, National Chengchi University Abstract The controversy about modern poetry in 1972-1973 is an important record in Taiwan modern poetry history. It is also an important event in the development of Taiwan poetry. Many discussions about this controversy concern with the difference between rising and former poetic groups, the background of history and identity, and misreading of Modernism. The issue of poetry character almost had never been discussed. In this paper, we try to focus on the question of distance between poems and reality. To find out how realist and the surrealist establish their own viewpoints and what is the ideal distance between poems and reality. To arrange the criticism on poetry in the past would help to realize contents of poems at present. We think modern poetry is an unique literary form. It could shift from imagination to fact. When poets or critics try to define the relationship between poems and real matters, it will be quite difficult and ambiguous. For this reason, maybe we should combine two sides of discourse and then will know the ideal distance between poems and reality.
Title From individual trauma to collective memory──the derivation and connotation between the fictions and plays of “Oranges turn red” Author Chuang, Yi-Wen Associate Professor, Department of Chinese Literature, National Central University Abstract The rewrite of the fiction and the reproduction of plays of “Oranges turn red” were very complicated and represented the significance of the era. The goal of this thesis is to analyze the transaction through tracing original data. Chi-Chun, the writer of “Oranges turn red”, was known for her gentle and honest non-fiction writing. In order to embody the unspeakable true experiences from her complex family background though, Chi-Chun chose the form of fiction to express herself. “Oranges turn red” along with Chi-Chun’s early creations such as “A-Yu” and “Li-Re” were all based on her own experience and were written to express her personal experiences and the myth of her life. Chi-Chun performed self-treatment and rescue via repeated writings, and created an ambiguous space between reality and fiction that let play-writers’ imagination to be able to fully expressed thus created new texts with different endings. Through the re-creation from different playwrights and writers, “Oranges turn red” was changed from gentle and composed fiction into valiant radio shows, movies, and radical TV dramas. The personal trauma of Chi-Chun was then re-annotated by female creators with various social backgrounds, which eventually lead to the national memory and became the standard in examine the development of social consciousness.
Title Taiwanese Literature Turning Left: Yang Kui and the Literary Criticism in the 1930’s Author Chen, Fang-Ming Professor, Graduate Institute of Taiwanese Literature National Chengchi University Abstract As a self-dubbed “humanitarian socialist” throughout his life, Yang-Kui (1905-1985) had played a mild role both in the left-wing political movement during the 1920's and in the leftist literary movement during the 1930's under Japanese rule. Much attention and discussion have been directed to the artistic achievements in his writing of fiction, but little to his literary criticism which deserves close examination. This paper seeks to explain why Yang Kui chose to convert his political activity into literary writing after he had been expelled from the camp of the peasant movement in 1929. With his strong belief in socialism, Yang Kui, when departing from the political group, came to realize that literature as a tool for antagonizing colonization was a proper way to enlighten general mass in colonial Taiwan. However, his pursuit of Marxist literary theory led him again to break with members in the literary organization he had joined. The position he took in the literary movement was unwelcome by both the rights and leftists., simply because he was too mild from the left while too radical from the right. This paper proposes to seek an interpretation to clarify his writing strategies in literary criticism during this controversial period.
Title Jailed “Newspaper Boy”: Yang Kui against the censorship Author Isao Kawahara Chang, Wen-Hsun (Translator) Lecturer, SeiKei High School, Japan Assistant Professor, Graduate Institute of Taiwanese Literature, National Chengchi University Abstract For the strong resistance spirits between the lines, Yang Kui's “Newspaper Boy” has nowadays become one of the most famous works among Taiwanese literary works under Japanese rule. In October 1934, “Newspaper Boy” was awarded the second prize by “Bungaku Hyouron” and published in the very volume. Thus, Yang Kui became the first Taiwanese writer who won the recognition from Japanese literary arena and leaped to fame. However, in contrast with Yang Kui's original manuscript, the “Newspaper Boy” text in “Bungaku Hyouron” was a revision after the first half of this work was banned by Taiwan Governor's Office. In the original version, the indictment of political and social unfairness was clearly expressed. As Yang Kui converted the complaint into specific subject matter like Taiwan Cane Industry's problem, Taiwan Governor's Office was certainly unwilling to allow this work to appear in the newspapers. So, Taiwan Governor's Office banned Taiwan Hsin Minpao from carrying the later half of “Newspaper Boy”, and then banned “Bungaku Hyouron” (which published the whole “Newspaper Boy”) from Taiwan market. Even “Newspaper Boy” won the recognition from Japanese literary arena, it was not permitted to present the whole text to the Taiwanese public. Yang Kui could only write criticism under pseudonyms and quote the commentary and appreciation from “Bungaku Hyouron” to propagate the contents and success of “Newspaper Boy”. By surveying the issues caused from the creation and publication of the novel “Newspaper Boy”, this thesis discuss the deep and immense influences of the censorship from Taiwan Governor's Office on the development of Taiwanese Literature.
Title The forming and development of Taiwan Left-wing Literary movement during Japanese occupation Author Choi, Mal-Soon Assistant Professor, General Education Center, National Taipei University of Technology Abstract The paper is written with purpose of comprehensively analyzing the development and formation of leftist literature in Taiwan during the period of Japanese Occupancy. Basically, the movement of leftist literature during the Japanese Occupancy was developed along with socialistic politics and public movement that implied the modernization of capitalism imposed to Taiwan by Japan. Around 1925, the development of colonial capitalism with monopoly sacrificed unilaterally the interest of Taiwan people that brought adverse national conflicts and hierarchic conflicts, resulting in the national movement enlightened by the bourgeois class changing to pursue the liberalization of proletarian class based public movement, whereby emerging the leftist literary movement. The leftist writers started describing the real life of proletarian people and believed that it was the literature corresponding with the Time. In this paper, the leftist literature in the new literary movement will be analyzed in three phases and described the process of the development in leftist literary movement, where the value and meaning directed by the leftist literary movement during the Japanese Occupancy. As a result, it was found that the development of leftist literary movement was undertaken along with the development of international socialism with liberalization of Taiwan people that the literary theory proposed by the leftists encompassed the true knowledge on the history and reality emphasizing with the correlation between the general public and the literature.