Title Who are shao chao, guan chao, yi, nai nong and shi yi? Identifying the authors of taiwan ri ri xin bao Author Hsu, Chun-Ya Professor, Department of Chinese Literature, National Taiwan Normal University Abstract The main concern of this article is to find out the identity of the authors of several novels published in taiwan ri ri xin bao, who adopted different pseudo names at different times. For example, “Prince of Denmark”, “leng jing” and “yu chan” are all works which are adapted fromy in bian yan yu. Judging from the styles of writing, it is argued that their alleged authors guan chao and shao chao should indeed be the same person – Li Han-ru. It is also observed that he used the name nai nong in his 1910 works (“Cuiwei”, “devil’s wife”, “xiao zi” and “shen nu”), which are more mature and creative such that two of them are reprinted in some magazines in Mainland China. Other examples contain the case of Wang Tao, who used names such as yi and shi yi at different times. Indeed, Taiwanese writers in general, at that time, adapted many Chinese classic novels such as zui cha zhi guai, yin bian yan yu, hua guo ju tan and Strange Stories from a Chinese Studio. It is therefore important to identify the authors and origins of these Taiwanese classic literary works, which gave strong thrusts to the development of Taiwanese literature from mere mimicry to genuine creation. In this way, adequate interpretations of these texts can be made possible.
Title Discussion of the Tradition of “Yu Ting Geng Ge” And it’s Significance in Taiwanese Classic Poetry Author Hou, Ya-Wen Associate Professor, Department of Chinese Literature, National ChengChi University Abstract “Yu Ting Geng Ge” (虞廷賡歌)is an ancient Chinese metaphoric saying to describe a specific type of tradition, whereas the first two characters “Yu Ting” stands for court of Yu Dynasty and the latter two characters “Geng Ge” particularly refers to interactive behavior of singing in chorus and poem chanting amongst monarchs and subjects. One can find relative information regarding “Yu Ting Geng Ge” in the Gaoyao mo (皐陶謨)"The counsels of Gaoyao" of the Shangshu (尚書) "Documents of the elder" also in Shangshu dazhuan (尚書大傳), a parallel tradition of Shangshu. In the past, literary figures see this song singing and poem chanting behavior as an earlier example of poetry than that of the Shijing (詩經), the “Book of Songs or Poetry” through which to express and reflect the ideal political, educational state that they had in mind. To Han people that are proudly watching over other ethnic groups, coming from central plains dominant part of China, this is a tradition that stands for integrity. However, factors such as the changes that occurs throughout time, other ethnic groups conquered and takeover the central plains, influence of western democratic political regime, how to respond to the rule of “foreign tribes” or a new political regime became a necessary issue for Han people to think about. Under these circumstances, the tradition of “Yu Ting Geng Ge” was proposed as the theoretical reference on how to respond to new political powers and regimes. Therefore, importance attached to the meaning of this tradition became a guideline of what directions to follow. In the past, Taiwan has experienced the rule of foreign tribes such as Qing’s people, Japanese colonization and so on. During these periods, many literary figures once again brought up the tradition of “Yu Ting Geng Ge” as the theoretical reference to follow in responding to the era of changes as well as reacting to the type of Chinese classic poetry creations that ones in power support and uphold. It is also important to look into the social functions of poetry and the political thinking of Yong Xia Bian Yi (用夏變夷), which means reforming foreign tribes using Chinese Principles.
Title The Idea and Practice of “Southern Culture”─Study on the Literary works of “Literature in Taiwan” Author Lin, Hui-Chun Associate Professor, Center of General Education, Chang Gung University of Science and Technology Abstract The political, military and cultural policies adopted by the Japanese government after 1937 imposed great restrictions on the language and contents of literary works. The control over the literary circle in Taiwan also shifted to the hands of Japanese writers in Taiwan. “Literature in Taiwan”, a literary group led by Nishikawa Mitsuru, had the most profound impacts. The magazine advocated the “development of southern culture”, by extending the southern cultural policy of Imperial Japan to the southern culture in Taiwan Literature. This paper analyzes the works published in the 38 issues of the magazine, and finds that the term “south” was limited to Taiwan, and Taiwan was considered part of the southern culture under Japan. “The Taiwanese Culture” did not mean the local culture of Taiwan. Rather, its existence served the purpose of supporting the literature of the southern part of the imperial kingdom. Given the unique geographic characteristics of Taiwan as a colony, it was not impossible to create the southern culture as part of Imperial Japan. However, the growing intervention and control of the state machine, the literary group finally had to synchronize with the literature at the core of Japan by responding to the wartime and writing/editing propaganda. In the imaginary world depicted by the holy war and the Great East Asia Coprosperity Sphere, the realization of the southern culture by Taiwan Literature, which was proud to be the only southern feature in Japan, was no more than empty posturing bowing to serve Imperial Japan.
Title The Establishment of the Japanese-Language Fiction in Taiwan in the 1940s and Taipei Imperial University Author Chang, Wen-Hsun Assistant Professor, Graduate Institute of Taiwan Literature, National Taiwan University Abstract Modern Taiwan fiction made its official debut the 1920s. It entered a “period of dormancy” when the Chinese-language column on the newspapers was canceled by the Japanese colonial government in 1937. With the publications of Nishikawa Mitsuru’s Literary Taiwan (Bungei Taiwan) and Zhang Wen-huan’s Taiwan Literature (Taiwan bungaku) in the beginning of the 1940s, modern Taiwan fiction began to revitalize. This was contingent upon the influence of the movement of Japanese Imperial Rule Assistance (Taisei yokusan) had on colonial cultural policies, as well as on how Taiwanese intellectuals took advantage of such policies. This kind of historicization is well accepted in existing literary histories. This essay argues that such historicization over-emphasizes the active, invasive quality of “Japanese mainlanders in Taiwan” (naichi jin) represented by Nishikawa Mitsuru, resulting in a skepticism that essentializes all literary activities of “Japanese mainlanders in Taiwan” as related to politics and the “movement of imperialization” (kôminka). With a discussion of the introduction of such literary journal as “Taiwan University Literature” (Taidai bungali) and from an analytical angle of “literary field,” this essay explores a possible foundation of cultural capital shared by the two opposing campaigns of “Japanese mainlanders in Taiwan” and “Taiwanese people.” This essay studies the human and academic networks of Shimada Kinji, a professor at the Imperial University, and Nishikawa Mitsuru and Huang De-shi, leaders in the literary field in the 1940s, to stress how academia has interfered with and contributed to the establishment of literary field, and even transcended military and politic influences. Nishikawa Mitsuru, who independently began his own literary enterprise as early as the 1920s, and Huang De-shi, who came from a prestige family of Sinology, have both utilized their connections to academia and knowledge productions under Japanese imperialism, thereby acquiring and transforming related cultural capital. Additionally, the intervention from the Imperial University has brought much creative incorporation of historical tales and folklores to the changing landscape of Taiwan fiction. Foregrounding writers and theorists as “agents,” this essay aims to move beyond a nationalist frame to highlight the complex relationship between the structure of Taiwan literary field and Taiwan literature in the 1940s.
Title Taiwanese Scenery, Exoticism and Modernism─Focusing on You Syoku-syou’s Poetry and Poetics Author Chen, Yun-Yuan Ph.D Student, Graduate Institute of Taiwanese Literature, National Chengchi Univerisity Abstract In pre-war period, text dissemination provides a legitimacy foundation of the existence of modernism literature in Taiwan, instead of arguing about whether the level of urbanization and capitalization is enough to produce modernism or not. In addition, I consider that local color of Taiwanese scenery and “gaiti” (foreign land)•colonial condition, are two important factors to produce Taiwan modernism literature in colonial period. This article focus on Surrealism poet You syoku-shou’s poetry and poetics, analysis the relationship among Taiwanese scenery, exoticism and modernism, and try to define the aesthetics of You’s Surrealism and its inner perspective. I find out that You’s poetry is a self-gaze and self-description by “South” image, which is between local color and exoticism. It is not only the internalization and extension of empire perspective, but also the effort of Taiwan “hōnto jin” (native Taiwanese) writers to find the unique and subjectivity of Taiwanese literature in Japanese empire literature context. The transformation of perspectives is inevitably ambiguous.
Title Yu Kuang-chung’s Influence of Multi-area Literary Communication in 1970’s Author Shiu, Wen-Wei Professor, Department of Sinophone Literature, National Dong Hwa University Abstract This study analysed Yu Kuang-chung’s (余光中) influence of multi-area literary communication in 1970’s. At that period, the literary world began to think highly of the classical Chinese literature in Taiwan and Hong Kong. They expect that literary circles to reflect the social reality and nativism. Yu met with success to construct a conformability theory of Classical Chinese literature and Modernism. In the meanwhile Yu also introduced and translated modern and contemporary English and American Literature works. Yu did open and enlighten a lot of poets both in Taiwan and Hong Kong. This study also discovered the academy system of literature attained to maturity in 1970’s. The Chinese University of Hong Kong emphasized the courses of modern and contemporary literature. They hired many writers, scholars of comparative literature and translators, like Yu Kuang-chung, Liang Hsi-hua (梁錫華), and Wong Wai Leung (黃維樑). They were invited to host some series of curriculums which created literary education a new milestone. Finally, Yu made a great impact on readers, young writers and literary circles in the field of multi-area literary communication.
Title Translation as a Communicating Strategy: on Japanese Translation publications and Knowledge Production Activities from 1945 to 1949 Author Wang, Hui-Chen Assistant Professor, Graduate Institute of Taiwanese Literature, National TsingHua University Abstract This paper focuses on what kind of role Japanese, the language of ex-colonists, played in the early stage of Taiwan post-war cultural fields. To have a clearer view of this discussion, this paper has to analyze a phenomenon: when facing the still vast audience of Japanese, who made up 70 percent of reading population of the time, how did different groups of people adjust their publishing and promoting strategies? The succeeding government converted language of ex-colonists into some sort of “lingua franca,” using it as a tool to convey official ideas, whereas privite newspapers and magazines, by arranging Japanese columns or pages in their publications, conducted translation of knowledges to show their agency and to ensure visibility in cultural fields; besides, publishers still made new translation products respectively to cater to Japanese readers’ need, despite retreat of Japanese capital and government’s demand for “being Chinese.” In other words, during the wax and wane of different cognitive powers after the war, the Chinese government employed Japanese to deliver orders and to justify its legitimacy of rule, but Japanese not only functioned as a governmental tool for political purposes but also created some room for compromise between cultures. On the contrary, non-governmental cultural powers demonstrated their dynamics in politics and satisfied the need of readers through Japanese books and Japanese (even bilingual) versions of books. In addition to those groups mentioned above, members of 台灣藝術社 continued their publishing strategy as they did before the war to feed the remaining readers of popular literature, and left wingers implanted their social concerns and criticisms in their translation products. To sum up, through this paper’s investigation, part of the outline of Japanese translation publications as well as knowledge production activities after war is hoped to be given.