Title Whose Literature? Whose Property? On Chinese Literature in Taiwanese Magazine under Japanese Rule Author Hsu, Chun-Ya Professor, The Department of Chinese, National Taiwan Normal University Abstract This essay focuses on the phenomenon of Chinese literature in Taiwanese magazine or newspaper under Japanese rule. Which texts were chosen for reproduction? In which way were those texts reprinted? The reproduction of literature can be regarded as a process of culture transformation, including mutual adaptation, selection, preservation and elimination of different aspects of both cultures. From the viewpoint of the editor, he or she has to make many decisions in the process of reproduction because he or she has to take into consideration the politics and culture of a different country, and even commercial or entertainment factors. Chinese literature, when it was to be reprinted, thus went through plenty of changes. Besides addition, abbreviation and changes of plot, this essay focuses on the following forms of change: (i) change of heading, (ii) change of the name of the author and (iii) change of the wording in main text. First of all, in changing the heading, it may be based on the name of the protagonist, the first sentence of the text or the main theme of the story. Secondly, in changing the name of author, problems of imposture and plagiarism arises. Thirdly, in changing the wording in the main text, it may omit the narrator of the story, names of the characters in the story, where and when the story happens or even combine several stories which share similar topics. Tracing the origin of these stories and the changes they went through in the process of reproduction can help us get some insights into the underlying thought of the editors and finally construct a framework or structure which exhibits the interaction of literature among countries in East Asia. Only under this framework can we interpret Taiwanese literature more precisely and correct the mistakes made by much recent academic research in this field.
Title Demarcation and Positioning: Representing Republic of China through Postwar Taiwanese Fiction Author Fan, Ming-Ju Distinguished Professor, Graduate Institute of Taiwanese Literature, National Chengchi University Abstract Space narrative is an important tool to shape the imagined community. Under the ideology of great continent, the geographical axis of the early postwar fiction usually tilts toward mainland China, no matter where the story occurred. The government’s cultural policies intentionally encourage and guide writers to write about Kinmen-Matsu and Penghu so as to create a border war zone image to emphasize the political borderline in reality. The underlying purpose behind these actions was to build a new identity and shape national consciousness of the newly formed territory of Republic of China for its people. Opposite to outlying island writing, government’s cultural policies are comparatively in less favor of those works about Taiwan, the main Island. The image of the main island usually is portrait as a modernized, wealthy, fully built space that proves the righteousness of the government’s administrative policies in order to consolidate the so-called “role model”, picturing it as the springboard of strike back and positioning it as the base of counterattack. To echo the official space narrative, mainlander writers, who just moved in Taiwan not very, are unfamiliar with the geographical location, the overall environment as well as the history and cultures of the natives, they inevitably make use of a massive amount of space symbols, especially political landscape, landmarks and even slogans to cover up the difficulty of writing about realism. Although a few texts already express some extend of reality, how mainlanders have gradually, slowly build up their social networks and how through the interactions between communities and groups, they have developed the sense of space. As a result, a sense of understanding and intimacy to Taiwan’s landscapes and culture was formed. It’s a pity that this local dream state scenario can only exist in the imaginary world within the text itself as the new comers would not dare to surpass the space narrative of government’s greater perimeter - nationalism and heroism.
Title Imagining the Body and Constructing the Masculine Subject in the War Narratives of Cong Hei Ye Dao Tian Ming and Xiao Ying Xiong Yu Lao You Chai Author Wu, Mei-Ying Associate Professor, The Department of Taiwanese Literature, National Cheng Kung University Abstract Drawing on Judith Butler’s body theory and R. W. Connell’s theory on men’s bodies, among others, this paper aims to explore the complex and dynamic discourse and representation of body images, as well as the construction of the masculine subject, in the war narratives of Cong Hei Ye Dao Tian Ming (From Darkness to Dawn, 1968) and Xiao Ying Xiong Yu Lao You Chai (The Little Hero and The Old Mailman, 1993). It is argued that the masculine subject constructed and/or negotiated in and through the textual discourse, in particular, in the representations of various body images, in the two paradigmic texts of the war narratives for young readers is replete with multiple significations and sometimes contradictory and/or ambivalent implications. To be more specific, the masculine subject constructed in the juvenile fiction of war is not to be taken as unitary, static, and in a state of naturalness and obviousness, but possibly dubious, ambiguous, contradictory and multi-faceted. For instance, the boy protagonist in Cong Hei Ye Dao Tian Ming is framed in a double image of toughness and tenderness; whereas, the boy protagonist in Xiao Ying Xiong Yu Lao You Chai is one oscillating from the image of a wild, naughty, and delinquent boy to a model hero worthy of respect and praise. Another example is the substantial contrast between the masculine body in valiant action and the demised, deformed, disabled, and thus alienated male bodies. In a word, the mobility and the complexity of gender significations of the masculine subject are operative and significantly constructed in and through the body discourse of the war narratives for the young.
Title De-colonization of the Historical Construction in Post-War Taiwan: Zhou Xien-Wen and the Collection of Taiwan Local Materials(臺灣文獻叢刊)(1946-1972) Author Hsiao, Min-Ru Assistant Professor, Department of Chinese Language and Literature, National Chi Nan University Abstract During 1958 to 1972 the postwar period, the Taiwan Economy Research Laboratory of the Bank of Taiwan launches editorial work of the Collection of Taiwan Local Materials(臺灣文獻叢刊) because of Zhou Xien-wen’s will. The Colleciton of Taiwan Local Materials had become one of the most important collection for researchers of Taiwan Literature. The collection is not only a books collection of Taiwan Local Materials. When the editorial work progressing , Zhou Xien-wen’s cultural thought, political position and the historical viewpoint of Taiwan history (esp. Taiwan colonial history) had also been woven into the Collection of Taiwan Local Materials. In the cultural atmosphere during postwar period, to emphasize on the oppression of the colonizer and the revolt of the colonized is the mainstream thought of history hermeneutics in postwar Taiwan.It reflects the perspective of Zhou Xien-wen on Taiwan history.
Title Historical Authentication of Cross-Cultural Interchange: A Study of Establishment of American’s Representation in Chen Ying-Zhen’s and Huang Chun-Ming’s novels Author Chen, Cheng-Fan Assistant Professor, Department of Chinese Languages & Literature, National Chi-Nan University Abstract The focus of the Americans is often found in the literary work in 1960s and 1970s about the representation of exotic culture. Two dimensions worth further discussion. Firstly, most of writers show great concern towards American soldiers, bars and prostitutes. Secondly, among the works in 1960s and 1970s, most are composed by Chen Ying-Zhen and Huang Chun-Ming; Chen’s and Huang’s works attract most attentions. Taking these two dimensions into account, this paper therefore aims to research the collective imagination and generated stereotypes of the American, particularly about American soldiers, bar and prostitutes in those novels. The positive image representation of the American no longer could be explained comprehensively from the Taiwanese people’s slavish mentality or new colonialism of America to Taiwan. Hence, I had to rethink how these novelists’ subjective positions were established to observe such lives. We then might realize how the novelists absorbed the social reactions and anxiety brought by the foreigner in Taiwan. People no longer considered the image of American being associated with the popular culture of getting rid of poverty and anxiety of the intellectual when living in the political circumstance at that time. By doing so, such thoughts naturally became the literary mainstream of modernism and local realism in Taiwan. While we read through novels of Chen and Huang, we were able to elaborate concepts of the novelists’ subjective cognition. Moreover, we could understand that the creation of the image of the American mainly transmitted the idea of how people criticize and reflect the Taiwanese cultural subjectivity under the reign of political martial law.
Title The Censorship System and Print Media in Korea during the Cultural Rule Era by Imperial Japan Author Han, Kee-Hyung Translator: Chen, Yun-Yuan Professor, Academy of East Asian Studies, Sungkyunkwan University Translator: Ph.D Student, Graduate Institute of Taiwanese Literature, National Chengchi University Abstract Media liberalization during the Cultural Rule era was primarily due to Samil (March, 1st) Independence Movement, on the other hand, a result from a new policy of Japanese Empire. It was for a breakthrough in the standoff over an assimilative integration and military rule in Korea. The new task—turned from “prohibition” to “control”— was entrusted to censorship system. There was an ideal goal that Korean people would be spontaneously predisposed to internalize the dignity of imperial Japan through a neutral zone—the media— but lack of awareness it needed time and patience. The oppression toward the Korean media throughout the Cultural Rule Era reflects the ruler’s nervous anxiety. The dilemma—managing right function (diffusion of colonial modernity) and adverse effect(self-awareness as modern subjects of Korean) both—was the reason why liberalization and regulation ironically coexisted. From the first, the censorship system encountered various challenges from Korean media raising a question of its legal legitimacy and the antinomy—media control under liberalization. Before long, this tension led to violent clashes as the cases of SinChŏnji and ShinSaeng’hwal. And a subsequent hard line as prohibition of Kaebyŏk’s publication in August 1926 meant internal crisis of media policy, on the contrary of its original aim—stability of colonial Korea. Above all, the ruler’s political legitimacy and morality were seriously damaged because of its Janus-faced way—a depressor posed as a supporter. Kaebyŏk’’s discontinuance, the most critical case of media suppression during Cultural Rule Era occurred at the moment Japan was just beginning its imperial expansion. In conclusion, several hypotheses could be suggested here about what end of Cultural Rule with the Kaebyŏk’’s disclosure caused in fate of the Korean media. Firstly, the social leadership of Korean legal media sharply weakened and as a result, social gravity of illegal publication’s importance increased. Secondly, it became obvious that the then media policy was mainly oppression against magazines and appeasement toward newspapers. Thirdly, closure of Kaebyŏk might be a trigger which caused Korean magazines to be divided to three types—ordinariness, practicality, specialty. Afterwards, such integrity and centrality Kaebyŏk had realized were never replaced by any magazine, and its leading role was generally occupied by non-political media. Authorities concentrated their energy on intensifying censorship system for Korean media’s depoliticization and mutual exclusion between its members. That is to say, there needed much more cost in managing them.
Title The "Seditiousness" of Modern Poetry and Censorship in Colonial Korea－An Analysis for The Poetry in Korean Newspapers(諺文新聞詩歌, 1931) Author Han, Kee-Hyung Translator: Chen, Yun-Yuan Professor, Academy of East Asian Studies, Sungkyunkwan University Translator: Ph.D Student, Graduate Institute of Taiwanese Literature, National Chengchi University Abstract This paper intends to comprehensively elucidate the mechanism between authorities and media, and between literature and the public in colonial Korea. The Poetry in Korean Newspapers—by Publications Department of Police Bureau in the Government-General— provides us a persuasive base and inspiration for it . This source book was a result from the objectification process of setting censorship criteria for the poetry literature in Korea. Some censorship criteria became indispensable due to the expanding political disquieting resonance from the poetry connotation—caused by increasing relationship between poetry literature, media and people in Korea. Especially, there was a situation perception for rapid intimacy between literary sphere and socialism through this medium—Korean poetry. In that sense, The Poetry in Korean Newspapers would be an important document reflecting structural conflict and contradiction of culture phenomena brought out in various forms. Compilation of this source book made the moment to practice censoring Korean poetry and it is reasonable to infer that a large number of poems were expurgated on the basis of these criteria. However, through the setting criteria, could it be ever possible to perfectly control the 'seditiousness' in Korean poetry? This paper is aiming at establishing a theoretic hypothesis for studying this question.
Title "Bōbyōk(法域, Jurisdictional Sphere)" and "Munyōk(文域, Literary Sphere)" : The Distinction of Expressing Possibility and Colonial Texts, Inside the Japanese Empire Author Han, Kee-Hyung Translator: Chen, Yun-Yuan Professor, Academy of East Asian Studies, Sungkyunkwan University Translator: Ph.D Student, Graduate Institute of Taiwanese Literature, National Chengchi University Abstract The paper is aiming at paraphrasing a kind of regional deviation in censorship which caused comprehensive influence on texts—reading materials inside the Japanese Empire. "Bōbyōk(法域)" means a possible sphere within which the criteria such as law rules and administrative acts applied to censorship are in force over the relevant region and its residents. During colonial era, Korea was territorially belong to Japanese Empire but was under the differential censorship criteria—unequal to Mainland Japan. This distinction of jurisdiction came to be linked to the strictness differential in censorship process, and it generally influenced the culture of colonial intellectual in Korea. By extension, this linkage became a background which established an asymmetrical structure systematically between texts of colony and those of “mainland” respectively. As a result, the apodictic distinction due to this asymmetry was brought about in "Munyōk(文域)"—a certain literary sphere, namely the limits of possibility in representation each "Bōbyōk" allowed. Meanwhile, the cause of all these phenomena was fundamentally not confined only to law and its application. That is to say, the Japanese publishing capital having worked throughout the Empire should be also regarded as one of the factors that created distinctiveness of the texts in Korea. These views bespeak that colonial "Munyōk" could be properly identified only with a comprehensive perspective into state power and capital activity.