Title Names Deeply Chiseled: Greco-Roman Motifs in Yang Mu's Poetry Author Michelle Yeh Distinguished Professor, Chinese, Affiliated Faculty of Comparative Literature, University of California, Davis Abstract Thus far, the study of Yang Mu has paid much attention to the relations between his work and Chinese classics on the one hand, and English Romanticism on the other. However, ancient Greek and Romanliterature is relatively understudied. This paper examines the significance of Greco-Roman materials in the poetry and poetics of Yang Mu. Following an overview of Yang's scholarship related to the Western classical tradition, the article focuses on five representative poems in chronological order: “To Athena,” “Virgil,” “Pindar's Ode,” “Greece,” and “Reading Dante at Year's End.” Yang's creative appropriations of Greco-Roman materials fall into two categories: 1. rewriting characters that are traditionally marginalized or stereotyped, which constitutes a form of Modernist critique and deconstruction; and 2. skillful integration of Chinese literature and culture into Greco-Roman materials, which is a kind of cross-cultural intertextuality. As a scholar and poet well versed in Chinese and Western literary traditions, Yang Mu displays a contemporaneity that evokes the Modernist sense of history that T.S. Eliot theorized.
Title Abstraction in Narrative On Yang Mu's Poems Author Cheng, Hui-Ju Professor, Department of Chinese Literature, Feng Chia University Abstract “Concretization of abstraction” has been used to examine poets' skill and technique. Yang Mu, however, distinguishes himself by the use of abstraction. His abstraction in narrative links the subjects of “afterlife” and reincarnation in the works of his earlier periods with the ultimate concern and philosophical meditation in the works of his late period. The focal point of poetical narrative reflects the poet's individual vision. This paper will discuss how Yang Mu depicts the scenes, delves into the psychological depth and treats the narrative “tempo” as expressed in “how” and “what”.With these aspects explored, the being of the poet is approximated. Although “narrative” rarely exists outside the story, and yet the overtone of narrative is superimposed upon the “story” and sounds in rich resonance. This paper will focus on “the display of sound,” the intertextuality and the dramatic recurrence in Yang-mu’s abstract narration of the specific stories and events.
Title Fort Zeelandia on the Sea Land: The Poetics of Post-colonial Historical Space in Yang Mu's “Zeelandia” and the Manuscript Author Hsieh, Kun-Hua Associate Professor, Department of Chinese Literature, National Chung Hsing University Abstract Composed in January 1975, Zeelandia is Yang Mu's first poem that he clearly wrote with regard to Taiwan’s history in the 17th century. Not only does the poem greatly reflect the Chinese lyrical tradition in classics at that time and earlier, but it also nostalgically reminds the readers of Formosa's writing characteristics. Through a thorough analysis of Yang Mu's manuscript and the final version of Zeelandia, the researcher of this study explored how the poet displays his post-colonial historical view by writing the naval battle. When using the codicology methods of modern poetry to carefully read the manuscript of Zeelandia, it can be found that Yang Mu makes delicate modifications to set off the unmodified parts through the deletion and replacement of words such as “open”, “her” and “lone sail,” which thereby connects all parts to establish the core image of “cicada tree-sleeping bed-giant cannon” throughout the whole poem. With the core image, the variations in each group of the poem are combined together, bringing out the two narrative lines of lust and the battle in the whole poem and advancing them. In this way, the poet constructs a nostalgia keynote of the vivid, vast sea view in front of Fort Zeelandia in the original manuscript of the poem, focusing successively on the comparison between the cruel killing on the battlefield and the lustful passion in the boudoir. From this poem, it can be a dialectical argument that the poet Yang Mu was influenced by the wave of the Vietnam War when he was studying in the United States, which led him to accumulate thoughts about colonization and desire and further set a focus on the post-colonial writing. The variations and the narrative advancement of the core image of “cicada tree-sleeping bed-giant cannon” in Zeelandia are already structured as a group poem that is similar to the form of poetry drama. By juxtaposing scenes and scattering sounds in a specific way, the poet creates threads for a certain historical time, including the role image, narrative rhythm, and place space. In the meantime, the colonist’ whispering of “Formosa” transforms the original erotic space into a maternal space integrated with fertility, not only presenting with a textual spirit of the post-colonial historical view, but also becoming the poet’s realistic yet distant response to East Asia and Taiwan.
Title Discuss the Motivation and Significance of Yang Mu's Translation of LORCA's Poems Author Shoi, Chia-En Assistant Professor, Department of Chinese Literature, Shih Hsin University Abstract The present article mainly concerns the motivation and the significance of Yang Mu's translation of the Spanish poet Lorca's Gypsy Ballads. After the introduction, the second section aims to show the importance of Lorca by explaining his creations and death. Lorca is not only a well-known local poet and playwright, but his death also symbolizes the representative of literary dissidents who spared no effort to defend their ideals. The third section discusses Yang Mu’s motivation for translating Lorca's poems. The fourth section further reveals the significance of Yang Mu's translation of Lorca's poems. The fifth section makes a conclusion.
Title Memories of Atayal Lidongshan Incident in Jianshi in Print Media Author Liu, Liu Shu-Qin Professor, Institute of Taiwan Literature, National Tsing Hua University Abstract Lidongshan Incident (Tapung Incident), which happened from 1910 to 1912, has passed for more than 110 years. This incident generally refers to a series of crusades occurring from August 1911 to September 1913 from the Government-General of Taiwan's occupation of Lidongshan to its suppression of Goagan, Mrqwang, Mknazi, and even Skaru. Although this Incident had a strong impact on the social development of the Northern Atayal and Jianshi Region, the Atayal people could not control the right to speak or narrate the Incident for decades. Under the requirements of regional development, it is necessary and fundamental to organize literary writings regarding Lidongshan Incident, excavating memories in the first layer and re-structuring its relation with the related collective memories of the Atayal people in Jianshi. Centered on Lidongshan Incident, this paper organizes how various texts, including landscape postcards (ehagaki), reportage, news, official documents, and oral lore from the tribe seniors, represent the significant historical incident for the Atayal, and scrutinizes how they had become each layer of the collective memories regarding the Atayal Lidongshan Incident in Jianshi to further release more bottom layer memories. First, the paper will begin with the landscape postcards focusing on the people of Mrqwang and Mknazi in the 1920s to expose the suppressed and gazed local history. Next, through reportage, it will disclose how the Han Chinese writers in the 1970s perceive the incident's aftermaths when considering mountain area indigenous people issues. How their works record the memories of war and resistance and embed what values in the locals’ memories. Finally, to point out the nature of the Lidongshan Incident is mountain warfare, the text will compare the memories of the tribal seniors in Jianshi regarding the Incident after A.D. 2000 with the Japanese police's review in the Journal of Ruling the Indigenous People.
Title The Origins of Modern Japanese Literary Theory?: Zhang Wojun's Chinese Translation of Soseki Natsume's Bungakuron reconsidered Author Tetsuya Hattori Translator: Lai, Yi-Chen Supervisor: Wu, Pei-Chen Lecturer, Department of Japanese Literature and Culture, Faculty of Letters, Toyo University Translator: Assistant Professor, Department of Japanese Language and Culture, Fu Jen Catholic University Supervisor: Associate Professor, Graduate Institute of Taiwanese Literature, National Chengchi University Abstract Through an examination of Natsume Soseki's Bungakuron (Theory of Literature), translated by Zhang Wojun, I will clarify the problems of the image constructed after Soseki's death, and the image of “Bungo Soseki” (Soseki the literary giant) who thought between the East and the West. I will also show that the original and translated versions of Bungakuron are in a peculiar state, and that they have a relationship that makes the identity of the source and target languages ambiguous. Karatani Kojin reinterpreted his own The Origins of Modern Japanese Literature and argued that the “origin” of modern Japanese literature was to break away from the influence of the Chinese cultural sphere and to conceal its history. Karatani then goes on to evaluate Soseki's persistence in writing Chinese literature and his ability to juxtapose English literature with Chinese literature. However, was Soseki really a writer who was opposed to this trend? As Karatani himself pointed out, Soseki's “Chinese literature” was a world of lost classics, not his contemporaries in China. After his death, however, the imbalance between the “West” and the “Orient” in Soseki's life became ambiguous, and the Soseki zenshu (Collected Works of Soseki), in which Soseki was described as a “worldly literary giant” who fused the East and the West, was published. At the same time, Zhang Wojun, who possessed a high level of Japanese language skills, encountered “Soseki Zensshu” and decided to translate and publish it. The expansion of imperial Japan's printing press made such activities possible. It was not only Soseki who encountered Western literature, but Chinese writers as well, who were confronted with the question, “What is literature? That is why there was a need for a literary overview and theory book, and why the publication of a translation of Bungakuron was achieved. Wang Xiangyuan criticizes Zhang Wojun's translation, saying that many of the Chinese words were transplanted directly from the original and that the style of the text is too old to be read today. However, the original was written in a “Kanbun Kundoku Tai”, a style of writing in which the text has a dual affiliation with the Japanese and Chinese languages, which can be interpreted in two ways. If this is the case, then Zhang Wojun's translation must have been written in a style of dual affiliation. If we put the original and the translated texts of the Journal of Literature side by side, the autonomy of the Chinese and Japanese languages seems to be unclear.